Samuel Dean did his PhD studying the molecular mechanisms underlying trypanosome transmission in Professor Keith Matthews' group in Edinburgh. He showed that a family of carboxylate transportyers transmitted the trypanosome differentiation signal. This was published in Nature as the first full article on trypanosome biology in 16 years. After this, Sam worked on trypanosome metabolism in Dr Achim Schanufer's group. He discovered that a single point mutation in the ATP synthase gamma gene was necessary and sufficient to allow the trypanosome to do without its entire mitochonrial genome. Sam then started a Sir Henry Wellcome fellowship in Professor Keith Gull's lab in Oxford. He has taken his research into broader aspects of cell biology, studying cellular compartmentalisation and the flagellum transition zone.